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 The
accomplishment of European Union has been to help the formation of wealthy,
steady and thriving ruled nations in Europe applying the transformative
influence of expansion, however, that’s aim is not whole as the countries of
the Western Balkans and Turkey and many more in the East have a European
prospect. The problem nowadays for the European Union is how it can repeat that
attainment to the south which comprises nations whose prospect may not lie as
part of the European Union even though its success may be closely tied to
European (Acharya, 2014.p.112). The European community security has been able
to encourage and inspire developments of peaceful interactions beyond its
limits. Nevertheless, the expansion of European Union security community in the
whole of a continent is faced with a lot of problems that the EU as a standard
exporter is incompetent in resolving. Therefore, in the whole of the region
encouraging harmony and constancy on one side and equality and the rule of law
on the other always seems hard to reunite (Howorth, 2014.p.88). As it is always
argued stability and security are the key urgencies of the European Union
associate states in the area and political alteration towards democratization
were supposed as possibly undermining and would hence be subordinated to the
upkeep of national solidity”.

The goal of the European security
community expansion is to promote the integration of the partner countries
within the EU and acknowledge the weaknesses and the challenges they pose to
greater expansion. The said weaknesses represent greater challenges to the partner
countries and Europe as a whole. Moreover, it is impossible to talk about the
close ties within the EU without acknowledging the presence of the Russian
Federation which is a third large party. Ever since Vladimir Putin took over
power, Russia has been aggressive in preventing countries perceived as closer
to it’s economic, political and cultural circle from pursuing closer ties with
Western Europe (Sokolsky, 2017, 14). One of the recent examples is the Ukraine
crisis and such weaknesses need to be critically examined within the
partnership between the EU and Russia. 

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Since the year 1989, European security
community saw the need for the Eastern partnership in the creation of
well-governed stable and prosperous nations along the EU eastern borders. The
partnership allowed the choice of the model of engagement between each of the
countries and the EU within its free and sovereign will. Several summits were
conducted to reshape the partnership policy basing on the inclusivity principle
for all the countries within the framework and look upon the increasing need
for differentiation among each of the countries (Geyer, 2016, 45).

Ever since the fall of the Berlin wall
a new security system has been created in Europe this includes several
organizations interacting and complementing each other. Each of the
organizations has different membership and differing mandates. The present
European security community and its partnership with others have created a very
stable nucleus, in which threats of war or even war between the countries has
disappeared at least for the members in organizations such as the Western
European Union, European Union, and NATO. The post-1989 European security
community has been very successful in the meantime regarding the partnership and
cooperation (Menon, and Sedelmeier, 2010, 84).

After the 1997 partnership and
cooperation agreement between the EU and Russia, there appeared to be a rosy
future for the two stakeholders. The two sides grew apart when Russian domestic
situations changed particularly because Russia insisted on being treated as “an
equal” implying a growing but hidden disagreement about the values regarding
the EU enlargement. The 2008 war in Georgia also deepened the gap between the
Europe and Russia and even foreshadowed the divisive split that followed.
During president, Medvedev era relationship between Russia and EU warmed but
the EU overlooked critical signs that would have sowed alarm (Copsey, and
Pomorska, 2014, 430). During the third term of president Putin, things changed
fundamentally as Kremlin tried to stop the EU’s Eastern Partners efforts to
move closer to Europe. Russia wanted “new rules” threatening the alternative
“no rules at all” (Sokolsky, 2017, 16). Russia was now seen a “strategic
problem” rather than the “strategic partner” as it was sometimes back. However,
the outcome of Ukraine will play an important and decisive role both in the
relationship between Russia and Europe and its future.

The Helsinki process facilitated the
‘cooperative security’ and the need for self-reliance saw the rise of North
Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) states. The European security community
also saw the informally and contextually bound groups of practitioners who are
like-minded and have a shared interest forming NATO states to Central and
Eastern European nations during the 1990s. Signs of integration and cooperation
have been expressed by Russians, for example, the 1994 when Austria, Norway,
Sweden and Finland treaties of accession to the EU were signed, also signed was
the extensive Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) between Russia and
EU. In the event held in Greece, 16 EU leaders were present to witness the
accession of the counties (Maltby, 2013, 440). Also present was the Russian
president, Boris Yeltsin who expressed Russia’s vision to reform, democratize
and eventually integrate with Europe. However, when Moscow demanded to be
treated as “an equal” it simply means that it won’t accept the EU principles of
behavior upon joining and hence Europe should negotiate these behaviors. In the
long run, Russia began to complicate its attitude towards western organizations
which eventually made NATO membership from becoming realistic for Moscow.
Although the country is powerful it failed to embrace the NATO goals.

The year 2004 saw the entry of ten
countries of central and Eastern Europe in the European Union, these are Czech
Republic, Lithuania, Malta, Hungary, Cyprus, Latvia, Estonia, Poland, Slovenia,
and Slovakia. Other three countries remained candidate countries and they
included Bulgaria, Romania, and Turkey. However, Bulgaria and Romania both in
Eastern Europe joined the EU in January 2007 bringing the number of member
countries to 27. Between the years 2004 and 2007, the EU mainly focused on
signing and amending the previous treaties so the EU can be more efficient,
transparent and democratic so together member states can be able to tackle the
global challenges including climate change, sustainable development, and
regional security (Christou, 2010, 423). The treaty of Lisbon was signed on
13th December 2007 and it ratified all the 27 EU member countries before
entering into force two years later.

Conclusion

From the above discussion, it is clear
that the post-1989 expansion of the European security community has been
successful in several ways including the 2004-2007 entrants which comprised of
eight former communist countries into the European sphere. This significantly
extended the European zone of peace extending from Baltic region in the north
and the black sea to the south. Eastern Partnership and Russia cooperation also
saw the European security community extend and have more partners in fighting
common enemies including terrorists and controlling crime. The western Balkan
countries which surround EU members’ states are also seen as a key role in the
regional integration and cooperation. 

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