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TB is a communicable disease which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria. Causes lesions in the lungs known as tubercles. It influences lungs in 80 percent cases. However, it also can affect other body parts such as an abdominal cavity, joints, meninges, female reproductive organs, skin. Proper treatment and medication can treat, prevent and cure TB.     Table of Content 1.     Introduction 2.     Epidemiology 3.     Types of TB 4.     Causes/risk factors 5.     Sign and symptoms 6.     Diagnosis 7.     Treatment 8.     Prevention 9.     Conclusion 10.  References     Introduction German Microbiologist Robert Koch identified tuberculosis(TB) in 1882. Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria is the cause of TB which is founded on both humans and animals. It causes lesions in the lungs which is known as tubercles (Aldridge, 2016).  TB is an infectious disease. However, It can be treated, prevent and cured.     Epidemiology TB affects one-third of the population of the world. It is the most leading cause of death and second leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide. In 2013, 9 million new cases of TB were reported. The case detection rate was around 64% because around 3.3 million people who affected from TB was undiagnosed or not reported. Meanwhile, 1.1 million people were estimated to have tuberculosis- human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection (Dheda, Barry & Maartens, 2016). TB is patent in Africa and Asia because 86% of TB cases reported in these areas (Kakchapati, Gyawali, Jha &Choonpradub, 2012). Inadequate treatment or irregular medication of TB can develop Multidrug-resistance TB(MDR-TB). Resistance to both isoniazid and rifampicin is known as MDR-TB. Morbidity and mortality rate of MDR-TB is higher than other TB (Kakchapati et al., 2012).     Types of TB 90% people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria remains asymptomatic and they cannot spread an infection to others known as latent infection (Zumla, Raviglione, Hafner & Reyn, 2013). Approximately 10% of latent infection can breakthrough active infection if not treated properly on time. active infection develops symptoms and can transmit to others as well. On the basis of human organs, there are another two types of tuberculosis, pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB. the lungs are affected by pulmonary TB. TB which affects others parts such as, skin, female reproductive organs, meninges, the abdominal cavity is known as extrapulmonary TB. About 85% of diagnosed cases of TB is pulmonary and 15%of TB is extrapulmonary. Causes/Risk Factors mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria is the main cause of TB. It can be transmitted by droplet when an infected person exhales, cough, sneeze and laughs,  the bacilli released into the air. If the healthy person inhales the air they can be infected. On the other hand, in comparison with other infectious diseases, it advised less infectious (Cooper, odle &Frey, 2014). There are many factors which may increase the risk of TB. They are homelessness, malnutrition, overcrowding, the presence of HTV. Sign/ symptoms     Although, more than 90% of people infected with M. tuberculosis they remain asymptomatic which is known as latent TB. Despite, active pulmonary TB have symptoms like a chronic cough, sputum production, appetite loss, weight loss, weakness, fever, night sweats and hemoptysis (Zumla et al.,2013). Fluid may collect in pleural cavity which is known as pleural effusion may cause difficulty in breathing and shortness of breathing and also recurrent cough for weeks to months (Cooper et al., 2014). Diagnosis The tuberculin skin test and the interferon-gamma release assay can use for diagnosis of latent infection and risk groups. However, these test is not suitable for the patient who has active TB (Zumla et al., 2013). The culture and sputum microscopy is standard methods to diagnose active TB (Zumla et al., 2013).   Treatment There are various drugs which are used to treat TB. They are Isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide. These drugs are using to treat TB but it differs for latent and active Tb as well as multi-drug resistant TB. A person who is suffering from latent Tb and have increased the risk to developed active TB they required preventive treatment. In latent phase isoniazid, 300mg daily given for six months and recommended to continue until nine months if its co-infected with HIV infection. Directly observed therapy (DOT) is used to control MDR-TB by tuberculosis control programmers which helps to decrease the number of defaulting therapy (Dheda, 2016). MDR-TB needed prolonged treatment compare to other TB.   Prevention Generally, Bacille-Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is used to prevent TB. BCG is one of the most effective methods to prevent TB during childhood. People infected with HIV a lives in high burden area with an unknown result of tuberculin test and without active TB recommended to have isoniazid for at least 6 months as preventive therapy (Zumla et al., 2013). In addition, there are various preventive measures of TB. The regular screening program in the high-risk area, avoid overcrowd and maintain hygiene also can help to prevent TB.   Conclusion  19The length of the text: 11070 (No spaces: 10271)

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