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NAME: MAUREEN JOSEPHINE AKELLO.
REG.NO: IN14/20332/14. COURSE: APPLIED COMPUTER SCIENCE. UNIT: EMMERGING TOPICS
IN APPLIED COMPUTER SCIENCE. UNIT CODE: ACMP491.   GREEN COMPUTING.
CHAPTER ONE. INTRODUCTION. Demands of applications from clients, research and
businesses have triggered technological improvements. The increase in energy
consumption of computing systems limit further performance growth
due to large electricity bills and carbon dioxide footprints. In
order to facilitate future adjustments, synthesis and classification of
research on power and energy-efficient design conducted to date. Green
computing or green IT, refers to environmentally sustainable computing
or IT.   Green computing is the effective and efficient use,
manufacture, and disposal of computers, servers, and other systems like
printers, storage devices, monitors and networking and communication systems.
Effectively and efficiently with minimal or no impact on the
environment. Green computing includes: Green Use – Using resources in
such a way that reduces the usage of hazardous materials. Green Design
– Designing objects and services that comply with the
environment. Green Disposal – Recycling e-waste with no or little
impact on the environment. Green Manufacturing – The discovery
and development of new products that reduces or eliminates the use
or generation of hazardous substances in manufacturing.  Green
computing is environmentally responsible and eco-friendly use of
computers and their resources. In broader terms, it is also
defined as the study of designing, manufacturing/engineering,
using and disposing of computing devices in a way that reduces
their environmental impact.Green
computing gives a practical exhibition 
and explanation on how to utilize assets accurately and reducing waste.
Green Computing is essential in doing away with vitality that comes with cost..
Currently,the execution of Green Computing has kicked off, however realization of  the sort of
vitality should picked up together with how its  accomplished. “Green
Computing” speaks to earth mindful approach to decrease
power and natural e-waste.1. Examples of innovations of green
computing are Green Server farm,  Force
Enhancement, Cloud computing, virtualization and lattice computing. Primary
objectives of green Computing are to reduce the utilization of
distractive and alarming materials
and heighten  vitality effectiveness,
reusing of industrial waste efficiency. Such practice coalesce
proficient usage of server and peripherals and reduces force
utilization. The aims of  green computing
are energy maximization  and efficiency
during products lifetime,using less hazardous materials and promoting
recyclability or biodegradability of obsolete products and factory waste. Research
continues into keys areas such as making the use of computers as
energy-efficient as possible, and designing algorithms and systems for
efficiency related computer technologies.2   CHAPTER TWO.
METHODOLOGY.  Methods  of implementing green computing are: Using
energy efficient Data Center Design – The energy-efficient data center
design includes air management, heat recovery and electrical configuration of
data centers in such a way that reduces the energy consumption to a
great level. Modern data center design also includes on-site electricity generation
and waste heat recycling.3Another way to “green” the data center
is to using low-powered blade servers and more energy-efficient
uninterruptible power supplies, which can use 70 percent less power
than a legacy UPS. Optimum data center design for saving energy
should also take into account the big picture, by considering
the use of alternative energy technologies (photovoltaics, evaporative
cooling, etc.) and catalytic converters on backup generators, and
from the ground up, by minimizing the footprints of the buildings
themselves. Purchase of energy efficient hardware

Look for systems that have good
EPEAT ratings. The ratings use standards set by the IEEE to measure
“environmental performance.” All EPEAT-registered products must meet
Energy Star 4.0 criteria. Energy star level goes between one and ten stars. The
greater the number of stars the higher the efficiency. So you can go green by purchasing an appliance on
the basis of energy star. Recycling E-waste – Instead of throwing away old
computers, mornitors etc, it would be essential to give them out to the
non-profits and charities or to municipal or private recycling bodies.

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Using power management technology
and best practices Modern operating systems running on Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI)-enabled
systems incorporate power-saving features that allows configuration of
mornitors and hard disks such that they power down after a specified period of inactivity.
When systems are not in use, they can hence powering down CPUU and RAM as well.
Hardware vendors too have their own power management software, which
they load on their systems to offer as options. For example, HP’s
Power Manager provides real-time reporting that shows how the
settings one has configured affect the energy used by the computer. Some
programs make it possible to manually reduce the power voltage to the CPU. Consolidation
of servers using virtualization technology reduce the number of physical
servers hence reducing energy consumption because virtualization technology can
run multiple virtual machines on a single physical server.   The
same type of benefits can be realized with Microsoft’s Hyper-V
virtualization technology, which is an integrated operating system feature of
Windows Server 2008. 4

Consolidating storage with SAN/NAS
solutions Just as server
consolidation saves energy, so does consolidation of storage using
storage area networks and network attached storage solutions. The Storage
Networking Industry Association(SNIA) does powering down selected drives, using
slower drives where possible, and not overbuilding power/cooling equipment
based on peak power requirements shown in label ratings.  

 Using thin clients to reduce GPU power usage.
Reducing the amount of energy consumed by computers
can be done by deploying the use of thin clients. The thin clients use very
little energy since most of the processing is done on the server. They
also generate less e-waste. There’s no hard drive, less memory, and fewer
components to be dealt with at the end of their lifecycles.

Using more efficient displays If
you have old CRT monitors still in use, replacing them with LCD displays can
save up to 70 percent in energy costs. However, not all LCD monitors are
created equal when it comes to power consumption. High efficiency LCDs
are available from several vendors. LG recently released what it claims is the
world’s most energy efficient LCD monitor, the Flatron W2252TE.
Tests have shown that it uses less than half the power of conventional 22-inch
monitors.5

 Wireless Network Sensor: Sensor utilized in
diverse parts range in a server farm to focus the temperature of every
territory, this will advise which region need to be more cool and where to
decrease cooling. Reuse: Through reusing the waste or supplies we can lessen the natural contamination. Fig 1: Green
computing frame work life cycle    Recycle systems and
supplies To reduce the load on already overtaxed landfills and to
avoid sending hazardous materials to those landfills (where they can leach
into the environment and cause harm), old systems and supplies can be reused,
repurposed, and/or recycled. You can start by repurposing items within the
company; for example, in many cases, when a graphics designer or engineer needs
a new high end workstation to run resource-hungry programs, the old computer
is perfectly adequate for use by someone doing word processing,
spreadsheets, or other less intensive tasks. This hand-me-down method allows
two workers to get better systems than they had, while requiring the
purchase of only one new machine (thus saving money and avoiding
unnecessary e-waste). Old electronics devices can also be reused by those
outside the company Paper consumption reduction. Another way to save money
while reducing your company’s impact on the environment is to reduce
your consumption of paper. You can do this by switching from a
paper-based to an electronic workflow: creating, editing, viewing, and
delivering documents in digital rather than printed form. Send documents as e-mail
attachments rather than faxing. And when printing is unavoidable, you can still
reduce waste and save money by setting your printers to use duplex
(double-sided) printing. An internal study conducted by HP showed that
a Fortune 500 company can save 800 tons of paper per year (a savings of over $7
million) by printing on both sides.   Green computing tips for printers
are: Discouraging recycling of toner catridges and this can be done by avoiding
recycling of Toner Cartridges because this leads to paper wastage,
deterioration in quality of printer’s leakage problems and recycled toner
cartridges can add carcinogenic particles in the air and cause cancer.
Discouraging Buying Different Types of Printers If you have different black and
white laser printers that are all different makes and models you
will unable to reuse parts for your broken printers. However, if you
have 10 laser printers all of same make and model, when one becomes damaged,
you can cannibalize the parts and use them as spares for your printer
rather than having to dispose of the printer completely. Discouraging
Unnecessary Printouts: Unnecessary printing and printers have a major
environmental impact both in consumption of resources and the energy required
to manufacture paper product. You can help save paper, toner, energy and money.
Encouraging telecommuting It is a work arrangement in which people work from
home, making use of the internet, telephone, and email. The terms
teleconferencing, telework or telepresence are often used interchangeably
and are used as a method to implement green computing. It’s the
ultimate way to have a greener office to
have less office. By encouraging as many workers as possible to
telecommute, there’s reduction of greenhouse gas emissions related to travel,
more work satisfaction and lower costs for office space, heat
and lighting, the number of computers required on site and can also
reduce the spread of contagious diseases. Follow These Basic Computer Ethics –
a)                 
Enable PC power management feature in your operating system.
b)                 
Turn off your computer when not in use.
c)                 
Screen saver doesn’t save energy. So avoid screen saver and turn off your
monitor.
d)                 
Use sleep mode whenever you leave the PC on.
e)                 
Always use the 80-plus certified power supply units for your computer. Cloud
computing. Cloud computing name comes from the cloud shaped symbol in which the
complex infrastructure is hidden as it contains in its system diagram. Cloud
computing delivered the computing resources as a service over the
internet. Cloud computing provide user’s data, software remotely. End user can
use the cloud services or cloud application through a web browser
or a mobile app while the software and user’s data is stored on remote
data server. As well as Cloud computing allows companies to avoid infrastructure
cost, and focus on projects that differentiate their business. Cloud
computing allows enterprises to get their application up
running faster with improved man power and less maintenance and enable
IT to more rapidly adjust resources to meet the unpredictable business
demand. Cloud computing naturally leads to power-efficiency by providing
the following characteristics: · Economy of scale due to elimination of redundancies. · Improved utilization of the resources. · Location independence –VMs can be moved to a place where energy is cheaper. · Scaling up and down resource usage can be adjusted to current requirements. · Efficient resource management by the cloud
provide. Therefore, cloud providers have to deal with the power
performance trade off minimization of the power consumption
        CHAPTER THREE. LITERATURE REVIEW. Due to the
rising cost of energy, reduction of natural resources, and
increasing concern for the environment by the general
population, sensitivity and interest in the issues of Green Computing are
high. As population has increased, energy use has also increased.
The widespread use of computers increases in computer energy consumption
leading to increases in pollution and related side-effects. The negative
side-effects of the computing life cycle include pollution in the
form of carbon dioxide from power plants and transportation,
lead and mercury from manufacturing processes and power plants, and
other toxic materials used in the production, use and disposal of computers.
The need for Green Computing is thus quite clear, yet empirical studies and
formalized recommendations have been slow in coming. There is a growing
consensus that improving energy efficiency will reduce pollution
and save money. The matters in question are how to go about implementing
efficiency improvements, how to improve these methods and create new methods,
and how best to spread this information by engaging computer
professional and lay man. Reducing consumption by printing
documents double-sided, viewing documents on-screen, powering off
electrical devices that are not in use, placing a computer in sleep mode
or powered off when not in use, and similar techniques are effectively free,
save for the minimal extra effort involved . Computers in particular are
ideal candidates for reducing power consumption, with easy-to-use
features such as automatic sleep mode which shuts down an idle
computer after a configurable period of inactivity. Using power
management settings is a common strategy for reducing energy consumption
and carbon dioxide emissions

 Energy Consumption – According to US
department of energy, data center heavily consumes energy, between 1.1% and
1.5% of the world’s total energy use in 2010. Another
interesting fact is that a typical office PC might use on the
order of 90 watts when active which includes 40 watts for a
typical LCD screen.

Electronic Waste – E-waste includes
discarded electronic appliances such as mobile phone, computers,
and televisions. As on Wikipedia, “Around 50 million tons of e-waste are
produced each year in which 15–20% of e-waste is recycled, and the rest of
these go directly into landfills”.  

 REGULATIONS AND INDUSTRY INITIATIVES. Many governmental agencies
have continued to implement standards and regulations that encourage
green computing. The Energy Star program was revised in October
2006 to include stricter efficiency requirements for computer
equipment, along with a tiered ranking system for approved products.By 2008,
26 US states established statewide recycling programs for obsolete computers
and consumer electronics equipment. The statutes either impose an “advance
recovery fee” for each unit sold at retail or require the manufacturers to
reclaim the equipment at disposal. In 2010, the American Recovery and
Reinvestment Act (ARRA) was signed into legislation by
President Obama. The bill allocated over $90 billion to be
invested in green initiatives (renewable energy, smart grids, energy
efficiency, etc.) In January 2010, the U.S. Energy Department granted $47
million of the ARRA money towards projects that aim to improve the energy
efficiency of data centers. The projects provided research to optimize data
center hardware and software, improve power supply chain, and data center
cooling technologies. Industry Climate Savers Computing Initiative (CSCI)
is an effort to reduce the electric power consumption of PCs in active
and inactive states.10 The CSCI provides a catalog of green
products from its member organizations, and information for
reducing PC power consumption. It was started on 2007-06-12.
The name stems from the World Wildlife Fund’s Climate Savers
program, which was launched in 1999.11 The WWF is also a
member of the Computing Initiative.10 The Green Electronics
Council offers the Electronic Product Environmental
Assessment Tool (EPEAT) to assist in the purchase of
“greener” computing systems. The Council evaluates computing
equipment on 51 criteria – 23 required and 28 optional – that
measure a product’s efficiency and sustainability attributes. Products
are rated Gold, Silver, or Bronze, depending on how many optional criteria they
meet. On 2007-01-24, President George W. Bush issued Executive
Order 13423, which requires all United States Federal agencies to use
EPEAT when purchasing computer systems.1213 The Green Grid is a global
consortium dedicated to advancing energy efficiency in data centers and
business computing ecosystems. It was founded in February 2007 by
several key companies in the industry – AMD, APC, Dell, HP, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Rackable
Systems.

            
                    CHAPTER
FOUR.   FINDINGS AND OBSERVATIONS.

Benefits of  green computing are:

 Environmental Sustainability – Refers to
ensuring diversity and creation of the biological systems because it reduces
the negative effects of the processes through green use, design, disposal and
green manufacturing.  It also ensures
economic sustainability which is important for the survival of human beings.

 Better Resource Utilization –  This is
the approach used by utilizing resources such as data
centers, heat, office space,light, computers amd electrical power in an
environmentally friendly way.Green computing has lessened environmental
impact (less GHG emissions, less e-waste, fewer virgin resources needed for
manufacturing new devices .)

Cost Saving –  When resources
are utilized efficiently through green computing, operation cost is saved. The
cash that could be used in maintenance can therefore be used elsewhere.

 

 Improved Corporate and Social Image. Businesses
can improve their collective image by meeting consent and regulatory
requirements. It also helps in meeting demands of clients and their employees.

Longer lasting computing devices:  When good power management is done on
computers, their productivity increases hence last a little bit longer than
expected,  

Reduced health risk for computer
workers and recyclers: health risks posed by emission of heat from computers
are likely to reduce when green computing is employed.

   
      CHALLENGES FACING GREEN COMPUTING. Return of Investment: Educating stakeholders regarding the environmentally
impact on computers is the major problem. Another challenge is that immediate
results cannot be easily demonstrated. The returns of projects that involves Greening
are usually, observed after a long period of time. Hence an important
challenge in this project was to show Immediate returns after the successful
implementation of Green IT in the computer center.

 Disposal of Electronic Wastes: Reliability
about the use of green materials in computer is perhaps the biggest single
challenge facing the electronics industry. Electronics giants are about to roll
out eco-friendly range of computers (like desktops and laptops) that aim at
reducing the e-waste in the environment. They are likely to be free of
hazardous materials such as brominates flame-retardants, PVCs and heavy metals
such as lead, cadmium and mercury, which are commonly used in computer
manufacturing. Replacements like the front-runner, a tin/copper/silver alloy,
also require higher melting temperatures, which can affect chip life.

 Perspective with respect to
Indian Scenario: In India, lack of basic research initiative and congenial
infrastructure has resulted in absence of good patents and commercial
production of indigenously built equipment’s. Due to tax relief given by the
Government in the last few years for importing computer hardware accelerated
the import and resulted in the minimization of the machines, equipment’s and
peripherals. In this situation many small and medium scale industries were
induced to start procuring the hardware at low prices and venture into the
building of IT infrastructure for the company Our leadership in energy
efficiency, miniaturization, and integration at the silicon and board level is
a testament to VIA’s R capabilities: On the design side, ensuring energy
efficiency in IC chips requires a keen focus on reducing voltage, while
retaining performance and enabling our signature rich-feature integration
within ever-smaller packages. This is not a simple process and demands high
levels of skilled engineering, which is why, to this day, we can offer the
lowest power-consuming embedded, notebook, and desktop processors in the world.
 Increase in energy requirements for Data Centers and growing energy cost:
Green computing could actually be quite costly. Given that there has been a
green process that the computer will have gone through in order to make the
computer in the first place; there will usually be some kind of added cost when
the computer has been finished. Green computing takes a lot of new technology,
and hence, you may find that you will have to pay a premium price for your new
green computer. A perfect example is that the greenest modern computers today
are Mac books and Mac book Pros. Green computing could actually be quite
costly. Given that there has been a green process that the computer will have
gone through in order to make the computer in the first place; there will
usually be some kind of added cost when the computer has been finished. Green
computing takes a lot of new technology, and hence, you may find that you will
have to pay a premium price for your new green computer.   Unwavering
quality of Power: As the vitality requests expanding step by step and supply is
declining. Vitality effective framework guarantees sound force framework.
Numerous commercial enterprises produce their own particular power which
propels to keep the utilization low. Processing Power. Consumption has Reached
a Critical Point: Data focuses have used up usable power and cooling because of
  Rapid technology change, low initial cost, and with planned obsolescence
has resulted in a fast-growing surplus of unused hardware around the globe.
Dave Kruch, CEO of Cash for Laptops, regards electronic waste as a
“rapidly expanding” issue.    Technical solutions are
available, but in most cases a legal framework, a collection system, logistics,
and other services need to be implemented before a technical solution can be
applied. Complexities of licensing are the issue with virtualization. For
instance, a Linux based server offers a virtualized windows server must fulfill
authorizing prerequisites.              
                     
            CHAPTER FIVE. RECOMMENDATIONS.
Multiple clients can chip away at a solitary workstation by essentially
appending up to 10 screens, mice and keyboards.   building enormous more
data focuses where data focus alludes to a brought together store, either
physical or virtual, for the stockpiling administration, and scattering of data
and data sorted out around a specific assemblage of learning or relating to a
specific business. Use a laptop instead of a desktop as they consume lesser
power.    Establish multiple power schemes to address different usage
models. For example, you can create a power scheme for playing music CDs that
shuts off your hard drive and monitor immediately, but never puts your system
into standby mode. Trigger based VM migration technique can be extended to
include additional run time configuration management parameters for supporting
live VM migration.   Energy aware VM consolidations and resource scheduling
with reliable cloud systems can be implemented in commercial applications.
  An energy-aware fault tolerant scheduling framework for Cloud Computing
systems can be   Avoid using screen savers. They are not necessary on
modern monitors and they actually consume more energy than allowing the monitor
to dim when it’s not in use.   Turn down the brightness setting on the
monitor as the brightest setting consumes more power compared to the dimmest
setting.   Turn off peripherals such as printers, scanners and speakers
when not in use and close unused applications.   Use a laptop instead of a
desktop as they consume lesser power.    Establish multiple power
schemes to address different usage models. For example, you can create a power
scheme for playing music CDs that shuts off your hard drive and monitor
immediately, but never puts your system into standby mode. contribute about 2%
of total CO2 footprints.

 

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