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My plant is the Orange plant of the citrus family Rutaceae.  The Orange’s scientific name is  Citrus Sinensis of the Rutaceae family. The Rutaceae is a very large family which includes all citruses. The most common members of the Rutaceae family are lemons, limes, kumquats, grapefruits, oranges and many many more. I was unable to find an exact date as to when the species officially published and described but the author was (L.) Osbeck. The (L.) means that this species was initially placed in a different genus then it is currently in. Osbeck later came in and decided that the orange belonged under the Citrus genus instead of whatever it was under before. Citrus Sinensis is a subtropical species rather than a tropical species. It prefers a prominent change of seasons. They tend to do better in a monsoon climate as opposed to a humid tropical lowlands environment. While the orange is native to China and Vietnam, it can be found being exotically grown in Australia, Brazil, Cambodia, Cote d’Ivoire, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, Myanmar, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, South Africa, Spain, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, United Kingdom, and the United States of America. Specifically in America, it is commonly grown in Florida, California, Arizona, and Texas. The Citrus Sinensis typically grows in the form of a tree or a shrub. It has a perennial life history, which means that it is a plant that typically lives for more than two years. The flower of the Citrus Sinensis is a five-petalled white flower.  Leaves are leathery and evergreen, and range from elliptical to oblong to oval, 6.5-15 cm long and 2.5-9.5 cm wide, often with narrow wings on the petioles (leaf stems). The fragrant white flowers, produced singly or in cluster of up to 6, are around 5 cm wide, with 5 petals and 20 to 25 yellow stamens. The flowers are typically pollinated by honey bees. The fruit is round and is typically 6.5 to 9.5 cm wide, and ripens to an orange or yellow color. The rind (or peel)  of the Citrus Sinensis contains numerous small oil glands, which are visible to the human eye. The flesh or pulp of the fruit is typically juicy and sweet, divided into 10 to 14 segments (although there are seedless varieties) and ranges in color from yellow to orange to red. Both the fruit and the tree of the Citrus Sinensis have many uses. An Agroforestry Database report on the Citrus Sinensis lists products that can be utilized in a variety of ways. The report says “Food: Fruits are a good source of vitamin C. They can be eaten fresh or made into juice, marmalade or jelly. In Brazil and Florida, juice the world’s largest producers, 90% of the production is converted to. Pectin, a setting agent, is made from the peel. Fodder: Pulp, molasses and residues from juice production are used as cattle feed. Apiculture: Trees are valued honey plants. Fuel: C. sinensis is a potential source of firewood. Timber: Wood can be used for boards and panelling. Essential oil: Peels, leaves and flowers contain fine essences of oils that may be used in manufacture of cosmetics and medicinal applications. Medicine: Leaf decoction with salt is taken orally for digestive tract ailments, nerve disorders, fever, asthma, blood pressure, general fatigue and vomiting. Crushed leaves or fruit juice is massaged into the skin to relieve itching. Macerated root, leaf or fruit mesoderm is taken orally for urethritis; macerated fruit mesoderm or bark decoction is taken orally for liver ailments. Fruit juice or leaf decoction with sugar is taken orally for cold and loss of appetite, while crushed leaf decoction as a bath relieves headache and rheumatism. Broken bones are massaged with roasted fruit. Leaf oil exhibits carminative properties and light antispasmodic and sedative properties.” The Citrus Sinensis is also sometimes grown to provide shade, as well as being grown as an ornamental tree due to it’s beautiful white flowers and large, brightly colored fruits. This report proves that there are a large variety of uses that can come from this plant. Everything from medicinal, to ornamental, to fuel. Oranges up close to 80% of the worlds citrus production. While I was completely unable to find any symbolic or cultural stories, I was able to find a very interesting story on Bon Appetit regarding the Etymology around the naming of the orange.  https://www.bonappetit.com/test-kitchen/ingredients/article/the-etymology-of-the-orange . That is the link to it. It was very interesting because the name orange, stems from the spanish word. But, one day, someone just decided get rid of the N and make it arangia when it became known in Sicily. Instead of doing a final paragraph talking even more about the Citrus Sinensis, I decided that I would much rather write a paragraph thanking you for making this by the most interesting course I have taken. It was awesome finally getting to have you as a teacher. While I wish this was a full year class full of many more botanical feasts and hot sauce tastings, interesting stories and intriguing projects and labs, it can’t be. Thank you again for creating and teaching this incredible course.

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