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Mission SantaBarbara    By: Kayanna Alexis Olson  Table of ContentsHow the Mission Began……………………………………….Pg. 2Layout and Design of Mission Santa Barbara………………..Pg. 2Early Life at the Mission……….…………………………….Pg. 3What the Chumash Ate…………………………..…………..Pg. 4Destructions and the Mission Today…………………….……Pg. 5Reference……………………………………………………………………Pg. 7How the Mission  BeganMission Santa Barbara was founded on December 4, 1786 by Father Fermin de Lasuen.  Mission Santa Barbara was the 10th mission founded.    Mission Santa Barbara was built near Siujtu,a Chumash village.  Water was channeled from a dam that was constructed in Pedregoso Creek, high above the mission.  A two-mile long stone aqueduct carries water to a storage reservoir and settling tank constructed in 1806, and attributed to Indian mason Miguel Blanco of Baja, California.  A second aqueduct carried drinking water to the mission, its fountains and lavanderia washing facilities.  The original buildings were adobe, unpretentious, and a clay common to dry areas.  The original purpose of the mission was the christianization of the Chumash Indians.  Mission Santa Barbara is one of two missions who still run under Franciscan order.Layout and Design of Mission Santa BarbaraMission Santa Barbara is located close to Central and Southern California coast.  Mission Santa Barbara is in the city of Santa Barbara, on a hill that has an amazing view of the ocean.  Mission Santa Barbara was laid out in the traditional quadrangle, a foursided design with an open courtyard in the center, with many trees and a garden.  The Mission Santa Barbara church was completed in 1820 with one tower.   The second tower was added in 1831, and then collapsed within two years, and was rebuilt again in 1833.  The Neo Classical facade was inspired by a mission archives copy of the spanish edition with a patio, tannery, and neophyte housing forming additional courtyard-oriented squares.  Many of the existing buildings at the back of the mission building were created to meet the needs of the seminary, established in the 20th century.  Most of the new construction follows the foundation of the old quadrangle.  The six bells hung within the two church towers.  The church was very large at 179 feet long and 38 feet wide.  The church that was from the year 1794 was constructed from adobe and tile.  The construction in 1787, the first mission church at Mission Santa Barbara were made of logs with a thatched grass roof.  It was a simple design and soon required replacing in 1789.  The church is still used as it is.   The church decoration has not changed since 1820, but it has been repaired many times.  The church walls are still filled with decorations from the 18th and 19th century.   Mission Santa Barbara is the only mission with twin bell towers.  Father Antonio Ripoll designed the stone church by copying from a book of architecture written in 27 B.C. by a Roman named Polion.  Over 4,000 people of the Chumash tribe were buried in Mission Santa Barbara’s cemetery.  Father Narciso Duran formed an Indian orchestra.   Early Life at the MissionThe bell that rang four times a day was to tell people when it was time to work,eat,sleep,and rest.  Every morning the bell also rang to tell people to come to mass and its services.  Every morning, the church sings and prays.  The games and crafts were very important to the Chumash because of their religion.  Most of the Chumash villages had a specific area where they held dances and for playing games.  Dancing and music were also important to the Chumash.  The women of the Chumash wore a blouse and a skirt.  The little girls were taught how to weave baskets and how to gather and prepare the food,they learned how to do these things from the elderly women in the tribe. The bell to signal the woman and girls bedtime rung at 8:00 p.m.   The Spanish schoolboys were taught a unique set of lines and curls to go with their signature.  The boys were taught how to hunt and make tools.  Once per year, the men and boys got a new pair of pants.  The bell rang at 9:00 p.m. to signal bedtime for boys and men.   The shaman’s are the religious leaders of the tribe.  The men usually served as the chief and/or shaman positions.  The women can sometimes take leadership roles too!  The shamans guided the sick people of the tribe.  He or she also leaded in battles against other tribes.  He or she made large charts of the skies.  Charts were very important tools for making decisions.  All of the children of the tribe were educated at a young age in teachings and traditions held by the village.  The older tribespeople taught the young children the skills they needed to grow into adulthood.  The biggest arguments are usually over control of land used for hunting and/or gathering food.  Santa Barbara was the third mission established in the land of the Chumash people at the native site of Xana’yan.  The neophytes were referred to as Barbareno ( after the mission) and Canaleno.  Many of the Chumash neophytes ran away from the mission.  Prior to the Spanish arrival, the Chumash inhabited the area from Malibu to San Luis Obispo.  The population that was recorded was 1,792, in 1803.  Throughout the early 1800s, life at the mission revolved around agriculture pursuits as well as religion.  Mission Santa Barbara is the only mission to have two founding dates because Father Serra died after he wrote the first founding date.  What the Chumash AteThe Chumash farmed and lived off of the land and animals around them.  The Chumash had cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, mules,and horses in great numbers.  In 1809,there were 5,200 head of cattle.  In 1803,there were 11,221 head of sheep.   The mission had two vineyards and many fruit trees.  The women worked by gathering acorns,wild herbs,roots,and berries to help feed families.  The women also gathered fruits,nuts,and vegetables while the men hunted animals such as deer, bear, and fish.   Acorns were a very important for the Chumash.  The acorns can be easily stored for a long time.  After picking acorns and finishing seeds, the Chumash women used rocks to grind to make flour for making bread and grains.  The holy bread and wine is kept in the Catholic church that hangs the cross of Jesus.  There are several crops that are planted and cared for at Mission Santa Barbara, which are wheat, barley, corn, beans, lentils, chickpeas; peas, and grapes.  The men of the Chumash tribe spent most of their days hunting,gathering, and preparing food.  The men hunted and fished to provide food. The hunters and gatherers usually went to the sea.  The men built tomols that can easily hold up to ten people or more.  The tomols are the strongest and fastest boats of the Chumash tribe.  Tomols were used for hunting and fishing for the men and to travel to nearby islands.  The chief of the tribe passes out food and valuables to the tribe members. Destructions and the Mission TodayThere were many illnesses, such as measles, smallpox, pneumonia, mumps, and diphtheria.  All of the illnesses were brought over when the Spanish came from Europe.  These diseases were a threat to the Indians.  Due to the many deaths, the California Indian population decreased.  The Indians were very sad because so many of their people had died from the diseases brought by the Spaniards.  On February 21,1824, there was a major Indian revolt and starred in the Central Coast region.  The Spanish soldiers battled the Chumash during the revolt of 1824.  In 1808,  Jose Antonio Ramirez built the Moorish Fountain.  The Moorish Fountain was close to where the final church would stand.  In 1925, an earthquake damaged the mission.  The mission had mostly civil problems.  The mission’s nickname is “Queen of the Missions”.  The mission was secularized in 1834.  The current status of the mission is Active Roman Catholic Church, owned and operated by the Franciscans.  The 2nd earthquake, June 29,1925, damaged the mission.  The construction from the 2nd earthquake was completed in 1927,the towers were reforced in 1953.  The third church was destroyed  by an earthquake in 1812.  The church was uninjured until a major earthquake in 1925.  The earthquake shook all of Southern California.  The church suffered really bad damage including the fully collapse of the Eastern tower.  The fourth and present church was rebuilt after the great earthquake of 1812, it was completely demolished in the previous adobe version.  In 1805, the construction of the brand new church began.  Converted natives accomplished most of the labor under the guidance of master stonemason Antonio Ramirez.  The mission has a museum open on weekdays from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. for self-guided tours around Mission Santa Barbara for a minimum fee of $4.00 per person.  The docent tours are on Thursdays, and Fridays at 11:00 a.m. ,and Saturdays at 10:30 a.m.  Over 200 years after its construction, the church is still home to an active and violent, also known as a working community of Franciscan friars.  The current mission property is now houses, a retreat center, and a museum that displays its historic cemetery, gardens, and an aqueduct system/fountain for visitors.  Santa Barbara is the only mission continuously operated by the Franciscans since its founding.  Juana Maria, the Lone Woman of San Nicholas Island portrayed in Scott O’Dell’s Island of the Blue Dolphins was buried in the missions cemetery in 1853. Today, mission Santa Barbara serves as a Parish Church, a Franciscan monastery, a  seminary for theological students for the Franciscan priesthood. It also has a gift shop.Mission Santa Barbara is one of California’s most beautiful relics from the 18th century. Mission Santa Barbara was very important in the final years of the mission era.It became the headquarters for the mission chain after 1833.Starting in 1841, for almost five years,the first Catholic Bishop of California stayed at Mission Santa Barbara.      References

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